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Wöchentlicher PostgreSQL Newsletter - 14. Februar 2010


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== Wöchentlicher PostgreSQL Newsletter - 14. Februar 2010 ==

Herzlichen Glückwunsch zum Jahr des Tigers von der PostgreSQL Global
Development Group!

== PostgreSQL Produkt Neuigkeiten ==

pgpool-II 2.3.2.1, ein Connection Pooler und mehr,
ist erschienen.
http://pgfoundry.org/projects/pgpool/

Skytools 2.1.11, ein Python-basierendes Replikationssystem,
ist erschienen.
http://pgfoundry.org/projects/skytools/

== PostgreSQL 9.0 Feature der Woche ==

Verletzungen der Unique-Bedingung enthalten nun eine detailliertere
Fehlerbeschreibung.

== PostgreSQL Jobs im Februar ==

http://archives.postgresql.org/pgsql-jobs/2010-02/threads.php

== PostgreSQL Lokal ==


Die Deutsche PostgreSQL User Gruppe hat einen Stand in der
"Projekt Lounge" in Halle 2 auf der Cebit 2010 vom 02. bis zum 06.
März 2010 in Hannover, Deutschland.
http://andreas.scherbaum.la/blog/archives/649-PostgreSQL-stand-at-Cebit-2010.html

Die Deutsche PostgreSQL User Gruppe hat einen Stand auf den Chemnitzer
Linuxtagen 2010 am 13. und 14. März 2010 in Chemnitz, Deutschland.
Andreas (ads) Scherbaum hält einen Vortrag über PostgreSQL 9.0 und
einen Workshop zum Thema "PostgreSQL tunen".
http://andreas.scherbaum.la/blog/archives/652-PostgreSQL-stand-at-Chemnitz-Linux-Days-2010.html
http://chemnitzer.linux-tage.de/2010/vortraege/plan.html

Linuxfest Nordwest 2010 findet in Bellingham, Washington, USA am
24. und 25. April statt. Vortragsreihen, Stände und Sponsoring
sind verfügbar.
http://linuxfestnorthwest.org/

Andreas (ads) Scherbaum hält einen Kurs "PostgreSQL im
Unternehmenseinsatz" an der VHS Magdeburg, Deutschland, vom 03. bis 07.
Mai 2010. Details unter:
http://andreas.scherbaum.la/blog/archives/650-PostgreSQL-Schulung-als-Bildungsurlaub-03.-07.05.2010-in-Magdeburg.html

PgCon 2010 findet vom 20.-21. Mai 2010 in Ottawa statt mit Tutorials
vorher am 18. und 19.
http://www.pgcon.org/2010/registration.php

Der Call for Proposals für die OSCON ist eröffnet. OSCON findet in
Portland, Oregon vom 19. bis 23. Juli 2010 statt.
http://post.oreilly.com/f2f/9z1zqmm5lhkab0uogt3avlvc4u59bro6f917re423d8

== PostgreSQL in den News ==

Planet PostgreSQL: http://planet.postgresql.org/

Dieser wöchentliche PostgreSQL Newsletter wurde erstellt von David
Fetter.

Sende Neuigkeiten und Ankündigungen bis Sonntag, 15 Uhr Pazifischer
Zeit. Bitte sende englische Beiträge an david@fetter.org, deutsche an
pwn@pgug.de, italienische an pwn@itpug.org.



== Reviews ==


== Angewandte Patches ==

Simon Riggs committed:

- Revoke augmentation of WAL records for btree delete, per discussion.

- In pgsql/src/backend/storage/ipc/standby.c, fix typo bug in Hot
  Standby from recent refactoring. Bug introduced into code recently
  patched by Andres Freund, so quickly fixed by him when bug report
  from Tatsuo Ishii arrived.

- Introduce WAL records to log reuse of btree pages, allowing conflict
  resolution during Hot Standby.  Page reuse interlock requested by
  Tom.  Analysis and patch by me.

- Re-enable max_standby_delay = -1 using deadlock detection on startup
  process.  If startup waits on a buffer pin we send a request to all
  backends to cancel themselves if they are holding the buffer pin
  required and they are also waiting on a lock.  If not, startup waits
  until max_standby_delay before cancelling any backend waiting for
  the requested buffer pin.

- Fix relcache init file invalidation during Hot Standby for the case
  where a database has a non-default tablespaceid.  Pass thru
  MyDatabaseId and MyDatabaseTableSpace to allow file path to be
  re-created in standby and correct invalidation to take place in all
  cases.  Update and rework xact_commit_desc() debug messages.  Bug
  report from Tom by code inspection.  Fix by me.

- In pgsql/src/backend/storage/ipc/standby.c, improvements to ps
  message of startup process during Hot Standby.  Message is reset
  earlier and potential bug avoided.  Andres Freund

Robert Haas committed:

- In pgsql/doc/src/sgml/func.sgml, minor documentation improvements
  for new string_agg aggregate.

- Augment EXPLAIN output with more details on Hash nodes.  We show the
  number of buckets, the number of batches (and also the original
  number if it has changed), and the peak space used by the hash
  table.  Minor executor changes to track peak space used.

- Tighten integrity checks on ALTER TABLE ... ALTER COLUMN ... RENAME.
  When a column is renamed, we recursively rename the same column in
  all descendent tables.  But if one of those tables also inherits
  that column from a table outside the inheritance hierarchy rooted at
  the named table, we must throw an error.  The previous coding
  correctly prohibited the rename when the parent had inherited the
  column from elsewhere, but overlooked the case where the parent was
  OK but a child table also inherited the same column from a second,
  unrelated parent.  For now, not backpatched due to lack of
  complaints from the field.  KaiGai Kohei, with further changes by
  me.  Reviewed by Bernd Helme and Tom Lane.

- Fold FindConversion() into FindConversionByName() and remove ACL
  check.  All callers of FindConversionByName() already do suitable
  permissions checking already apart from this function, but this is
  not just dead code removal: the unnecessary permissions check can
  actually lead to spurious failures - there's no reason why inability
  to execute the underlying function should prohibit renaming the
  conversion, for example.  (The error messages in these cases were
  also rather poor: FindConversion would return InvalidOid, eventually
  leading to a complaint that the conversion "did not exist", which
  was not correct.)  KaiGai Kohei.

- Wrap calls to SearchSysCache and related functions using macros.
  The purpose of this change is to eliminate the need for every caller
  of SearchSysCache, SearchSysCacheCopy, SearchSysCacheExists,
  GetSysCacheOid, and SearchSysCacheList to know the maximum number of
  allowable keys for a syscache entry (currently 4).  This will make
  it far easier to increase the maximum number of keys in a future
  release should we choose to do so, and it makes the code shorter,
  too.  Design and review by Tom Lane.

Bruce Momjian committed:

- In pgsql/doc/src/sgml/plperl.sgml, remove tabs in sgml.

- Proofreading improvements for the Administration documentation book.

- In pgsql/doc/src/sgml/syntax.sgml, mention "unquoted" identifiers
  are case-insensitive.

- In pgsql/contrib/intagg/Makefile, rewrite intagg/Makefile from
  scratch, to avoid copyright mention.

- In pgsql/doc/src/sgml/Makefile, add SGML 'check-tabs' Makefile rule
  to check for tabs.

- In pgsql/doc/src/sgml/high-availability.sgml, update high
  availability/replication documentation chart for new hot standby
  featureset.

- Add C comments that HEAP_MOVED_* define usage is only for pre-9.0
  binary upgrades.

- In pgsql/src/backend/tcop/pquery.c, improve C comment about why we
  return "0 0" for some tags.

Michael Meskes committed:

- Fixed NaN/Infinity problems in ECPG for float/double/numeric/decimal
  by making it OS independant.  Patch done by Zoltán Böszörményi.

- Fixed some typos in ECPG regression test suite that resulted in
  regression test failures on some architectures.  Fix by Zoltan
  Boszormenyi

- Streamlined array handling code in libecpg a little bit, in the
  process fixing yet another incorrect log output.

- Usage of isnan() in ECPG regression tests probably needs '#include
  <float.h>' as well.

- First try to make this one ecpg regression test work on Windows too.
  I'm just trying to figure out the minimal amount of defines needed.

Tom Lane committed:

- The particular table names used in the new inheritance regression
  test are prone to sort differently in different locales, as seen in
  buildfarm results.  Let's cast to name not text to avoid that.

- CLUSTER specified the wrong namespace when renaming toast tables of
  temporary relations (they don't live in pg_toast).  This caused an
  Assert failure in assert-enabled builds.  So far as I can see, in a
  non-assert build it would only have messed up the checks for
  conflicting names, so a failure would be quite improbable but
  perhaps not impossible.

- In pgsql/src/backend/storage/ipc/standby.c, fix assorted
  poorly-thought-out message strings: use %u not %d for printing OIDs,
  avoid random line breaks in strings somebody might grep for.

- Assorted cleanups in preparation for using a map file to support
  altering the relfilenode of currently-not-relocatable system
  catalogs.  1. Get rid of inval.c's dependency on relfilenode, by not
  having it emit smgr invalidations as a result of relcache flushes.
  Instead, smgr sinval messages are sent directly from smgr.c when an
  actual relation delete or truncate is done.  This makes considerably
  more structural sense and allows elimination of a large number of
  useless smgr inval messages that were formerly sent even in cases
  where nothing was changing at the physical-relation level.  Note
  that this reintroduces the concept of nontransactional inval
  messages, but that's okay --- because the messages are sent by
  smgr.c, they will be sent in Hot Standby slaves, just from a lower
  logical level than before.  2. Move setNewRelfilenode out of
  catalog/index.c, where it never logically belonged, into relcache.c;
  which is a somewhat debatable choice as well but better than before.
  (I considered catalog/storage.c, but that seemed too low level.)
  Rename to RelationSetNewRelfilenode.  3. Cosmetic cleanups of some
  other relfilenode manipulations.

- Fix timing-sensitive regression test result I just created :-( ---
  the DROP USER at the end of the cluster.sql test could fail, if the
  temp table created in the previous session hadn't finished getting
  dropped.  Unluckily, I didn't see this in several repetitions of the
  parallel regression tests, but it's popping up on quite a few
  buildfarm machines.

- In pgsql/src/interfaces/ecpg/ecpglib/execute.c, add #include
  <float.h> --- guessing the lack of this is why Windows machines are
  all rejecting isinf() calls in this file.

- In pgsql/src/backend/parser/parse_utilcmd.c, fix unwarranted
  assumption that a cached rowtype would stick around for the lifespan
  of the CreateStmt.  Per buildfarm member jaguar.

- Forgot to back-patch CLUSTER test fix to 8.4.

- Restructure CLUSTER/newstyle VACUUM FULL/ALTER TABLE support so that
  swapping of old and new toast tables can be done either at the
  logical level (by swapping the heaps' reltoastrelid links) or at the
  physical level (by swapping the relfilenodes of the toast tables and
  their indexes).  This is necessary infrastructure for upcoming
  changes to support CLUSTER/VAC FULL on shared system catalogs, where
  we cannot change reltoastrelid.  The physical swap saves a few
  catalog updates too.  We unfortunately have to keep the
  logical-level swap logic because in some cases we will be adding or
  deleting a toast table, so there's no possibility of a physical
  swap.  However, that only happens as a consequence of schema changes
  in the table, which we do not need to support for system catalogs,
  so such cases aren't an obstacle for that.  In passing, refactor the
  cluster support functions a little bit to eliminate
  unnecessarily-duplicated code; and fix the problem that while
  CLUSTER had been taught to rename the final toast table at need,
  ALTER TABLE had not.

- In pgsql/doc/src/sgml/syntax.sgml, three out of four of us like this
  phrasing better.

- In pgsql/src/port/rint.c, avoid changing the sign of zero.  Per
  buildfarm failures.

- Create a "relation mapping" infrastructure to support changing the
  relfilenodes of shared or nailed system catalogs.  This has two key
  benefits: 1. The new CLUSTER-based VACUUM FULL can be applied safely
  to all catalogs.  2. We no longer have to use an unsafe
  reindex-in-place approach for reindexing shared catalogs.  CLUSTER
  on nailed catalogs now works too, although I left it disabled on
  shared catalogs because the resulting pg_index.indisclustered update
  would only be visible in one database.  Since reindexing shared
  system catalogs is now fully transactional and crash-safe, the
  former special cases in REINDEX behavior have been removed; shared
  catalogs are treated the same as non-shared.  This commit does not
  do anything about the recently-discussed problem of deadlocks
  between VACUUM FULL/CLUSTER on a system catalog and other concurrent
  queries; will address that in a separate patch.  As a stopgap,
  parallel_schedule has been tweaked to run vacuum.sql by itself, to
  avoid such failures during the regression tests.

- In pgsql/src/backend/utils/cache/relmapper.c, looks like we need
  #include <sys/stat.h> here on some platforms.  Per buildfarm.

- Work around deadlock problems with VACUUM FULL/CLUSTER on system
  catalogs, as per my recent proposal.  First, teach
  IndexBuildHeapScan to not wait for INSERT_IN_PROGRESS or
  DELETE_IN_PROGRESS tuples to commit unless the index build is
  checking uniqueness/exclusion constraints.  If it isn't, there's no
  harm in just indexing the in-doubt tuple.  Second, modify VACUUM
  FULL/CLUSTER to suppress reverifying uniqueness/exclusion constraint
  properties while rebuilding indexes of the target relation.  This is
  reasonable because these commands aren't meant to deal with
  corrupted-data situations.  Constraint properties will still be
  rechecked when an index is rebuilt by a REINDEX command.  This gets
  us out of the problem that new-style VACUUM FULL would often wait
  for other transactions while holding exclusive lock on a system
  catalog, leading to probable deadlock because those other
  transactions need to look at the catalogs too.  Although the real
  ultimate cause of the problem is a debatable choice to release locks
  early after modifying system catalogs, changing that choice would
  require pretty serious analysis and is not something to be
  undertaken lightly or on a tight schedule.  The present patch fixes
  the problem in a fairly reasonable way and should also improve the
  speed of VACUUM FULL/CLUSTER a little bit.

- Remove old-style VACUUM FULL (which was known for a little while as
  VACUUM FULL INPLACE), along with a boatload of subsidiary code and
  complexity.  Per discussion, the use case for this method of
  vacuuming is no longer large enough to justify maintaining it; not
  to mention that we don't wish to invest the work that would be
  needed to make it play nicely with Hot Standby.  Aside from the code
  directly related to old-style VACUUM FULL, this commit removes
  support for certain WAL record types that could only be generated
  within VACUUM FULL, redirect-pointer removal in heap_page_prune, and
  nontransactional generation of cache invalidation sinval messages
  (the last being the sticking point for Hot Standby).  We still have
  to retain all code that copes with finding HEAP_MOVED_OFF and
  HEAP_MOVED_IN flag bits on existing tuples.  This can't be removed
  as long as we want to support in-place update from pre-9.0
  databases.

- In pgsql/src/backend/access/gist/gistvacuum.c, remove some more dead
  VACUUM-FULL-only code.

- Remove CatalogCacheFlushRelation, and the reloidattr infrastructure
  that was needed by nothing else.  The restructuring I just finished
  doing on cache management exposed to me how silly this routine was.
  Its function was to go into the catcache and blow away all entries
  related to a given relation when there was a relcache flush on that
  relation.  However, there is no point in removing a catcache entry
  if the catalog row it represents is still valid --- and if it isn't
  valid, there must have been a catcache entry flush on it, because
  that's triggered directly by heap_update or heap_delete on the
  catalog row.  So this routine accomplished nothing except to blow
  away valid cache entries that we'd very likely be wanting in the
  near future to help reconstruct the relcache entry.  Dumb.  On top
  of which, it required a subtle and easy-to-get-wrong attribute in
  syscache definitions, ie, the column containing the OID of the
  related relation if any.  Removing that is a very useful maintenance
  simplification.

- In pgsql/src/backend/commands/vacuum.c, fix serious performance bug
  in new implementation of VACUUM FULL: cluster_rel necessarily builds
  an all-new toast table, so it's useless to then go and VACUUM FULL
  the toast table.

- Create an official API function for C functions to use to check if
  they are being called as aggregates, and to get the aggregate
  transition state memory context if needed.  Use it instead of poking
  directly into AggState and WindowAggState in places that shouldn't
  know so much.  We should have done this in 8.4, probably, but better
  late than never.  Revised version of a patch by Hitoshi Harada.

- In pgsql/src/backend/commands/vacuumlazy.c, rearrange lazy-vacuum
  code a little bit to reduce the window between truncating the table
  and transaction commit.  This isn't really making it safe, but at
  least there is no good reason to do free space map cleanup within
  the risk window.  Don't lock out cancel interrupts until we have to,
  either.

- In pgsql/src/backend/storage/freespace/freespace.c, allow free space
  map vacuuming to be interrupted.

- Fix up rickety handling of relation-truncation interlocks.  Move
  rd_targblock, rd_fsm_nblocks, and rd_vm_nblocks from relcache to the
  smgr relation entries, so that they will get reset to
  InvalidBlockNumber whenever an smgr-level flush happens.  Because we
  now send smgr invalidation messages immediately (not at end of
  transaction) when a relation truncation occurs, this ensures that
  other backends will reset their values before they next access the
  relation.  We no longer need the unreliable assumption that a VACUUM
  that's doing a truncation will hold its AccessExclusive lock until
  commit --- in fact, we can intentionally release that lock as soon
  as we've completed the truncation.  This patch therefore reverts
  (most of) Alvaro's patch of 2009-11-10, as well as my marginal
  hacking on it yesterday.  We can also get rid of assorted
  no-longer-needed relcache flushes, which are far more expensive than
  an smgr flush because they kill a lot more state.  In passing this
  patch fixes smgr_redo's failure to perform visibility-map
  truncation, and cleans up some rather dubious assumptions in
  freespace.c and visibilitymap.c about when rd_fsm_nblocks and
  rd_vm_nblocks can be out of date.

- In pgsql/src/backend/optimizer/plan/planner.c, improve planner's
  choices about when to use hashing vs sorting for DISTINCT.  The
  previous coding missed a bet by sometimes picking the "sorted" path
  from query_planner even though hashing would be preferable.  To fix,
  we have to be willing to make the choice sooner.  This contorts
  things a little bit, but I thought of a factorization that makes it
  not too awful.

- In pgsql/src/backend/utils/misc/rbtree.c, suppress
  uninitialized-variable warning.

- Extend the set of frame options supported for window functions.
  This patch allows the frame to start from CURRENT ROW (in either
  RANGE or ROWS mode), and it also adds support for ROWS n PRECEDING
  and ROWS n FOLLOWING start and end points.  (RANGE value
  PRECEDING/FOLLOWING isn't there yet --- the grammar works, but
  that's all.) Hitoshi Harada, reviewed by Pavel Stehule

- In pgsql/src/pl/plpgsql/src/pl_exec.c, don't choke when
  exec_move_row assigns a synthesized null to a column that happens to
  be composite itself.  Per bug #5314 from Oleg Serov.  Backpatch to
  8.0 --- 7.4 has got too many other shortcomings in composite-type
  support to make this worth worrying about in that branch.

- Tweak the order of processing of WITH clauses so that they are
  processed before we start analyzing the parent statement.  This is
  to make it more clear that the WITH isn't affected by anything in
  the parent.  I don't believe there's any actual bug here, because
  the stuff that was being done before WITH didn't affect subqueries;
  but it's certainly a potential for error (and apparently misled
  Marko into committing some real errors...).

- Support inlining various small performance-critical functions on
  non-GCC compilers, by applying a configure check to see if the
  compiler will accept an unreferenced "static inline foo ..."
  function without warnings.  It is believed that such warnings are
  the only reason not to declare inlined functions in headers, if the
  compiler understands "inline" at all.  Kurt Harriman

- In pgsql/src/include/utils/palloc.h, don't expose the inline
  definition of MemoryContextSwitchTo when FRONTEND is defined.  Its
  reference to CurrentMemoryContext causes link failures on some
  platforms, evidently because the inline function gets compiled
  despite lack of use.  Per buildfarm member warthog.

- In pgsql/doc/src/sgml/ref/create_function.sgml, document the
  behavior of STRICT VARIADIC functions.

- In pgsql/doc/src/sgml/ref/create_function.sgml, ooops, let's get the
  non-null vs null bit right ...

Bruce Momjian committed:

- In pgsql/src/tutorial/basics.source, remove copyright mention of
  Andrew Yu, per author's permission.  Backpatch to 8.4.X.

- In pgsql/src/port/rint.c, rewrite rint() to enable removal of
  copyright mention;  patch from Nathan Wagner.  Function is simpler
  too.

- Remove /contrib/isn copyright mention for German Mendez Bravo, with
  author's permission.

- In pgsql/doc/src/sgml/plperl.sgml, improve PL/Perl documentation of
  database access functions.  Alexey Klyukin.

- Have tab checking as part of gmake check.

- Properly document that OVER and WINDOW are Postgres reserved words.

- In pgsql/src/backend/utils/init/postinit.c, add C comment about
  process_settings() setting order.

- Document that archive_timeout will force new WAL files  even if a
  single checkpoint has happened, and recommend adjusting
  checkpoint_timeout to reduce the impact of this.

- In pgsql/doc/src/sgml/high-availability.sgml, mention warm and now
  "hot" standby servers in the high availability docs.

- In pgsql/doc/src/sgml/high-availability.sgml, remove tabs from sgml.

Magnus Hagander committed:

- Make RADIUS authentication use pg_getaddrinfo_all() to get address
  of the server.  Gets rid of a fairly ugly hack for Solaris, and also
  provides hostname and IPV6 support.

- In pgsql/src/backend/port/win32/mingwcompat.c, define the value for
  in6addr_any on MingW, since it provides the struct only in the
  header files and not in any libraries, yet declare it as an extern.

- In pgsql/src/backend/port/win32/mingwcompat.c, typo fix, per Thom
  Brown.

- In pgsql/src/tools/msvc/Mkvcbuild.pm, make the msvc build system ask
  python about details of version and installation prefix, instead of
  assuming it will always be following the default layout.  All
  information we need is not available on Windows, but the number of
  assumptions are at least fewer this way than before.  Based on
  suggestions from James William Pye.

Heikki Linnakangas committed:

- Add a message type header to the CopyData messages sent from primary
  to standby in streaming replication. While we only have one message
  type at the moment, adding a message type header makes this easier
  to extend.

- Move the responsibility of writing a "unlogged WAL operation" record
  from heap_sync() to the callers, because heap_sync() is sometimes
  called even if the operation itself is WAL-logged.  This eliminates
  the bogus unlogged records from CLUSTER that Simon Riggs reported,
  patch by Fujii Masao.

- Add a note to the documentation of pg_standby that it's important
  that the postgres process has permissions to delete the trigger
  file, per suggestion by Mason Hale.  Also fix pg_standby to do a
  more predictable exit(200) instead of the current exit(-1) when the
  unlink of the trigger file fails anyway.  This only affects 8.3
  branch.  Older versions didn't have pg_standby, and in 8.4 upwards
  pg_standby is no longer responsible for deleting the trigger file;
  it's supposed to be done by recovery_end_command instead.

- In pgsql/src/backend/access/transam/xlog.c, remove piece of code to
  zero out minRecoveryPoint when starting crash recovery. It's zeroed
  out whenever a checkpoint is written, so the only scenario where the
  removed code did anything is when you kill archive recovery, remove
  recovery.conf, and start up the server, so that it goes into crash
  recovery instead. That's a "don't do that" scenario, but it seems
  better to not clear minRecoveryPoint but instead update it like we
  do in archive recovery, which is what will now happen.

- In pgsql/src/backend/catalog/storage.c, remove obsolete comment
  about 'fsm' argument, which isn't an argument anymore.

- Move "Warm Standby Servers for High Availability" and "Hot Standby"
  sections under "High Availability, Load Balancing, and Replication"
  chapter.  Streaming replication chapter needs a lot more work, but
  this commit just moves things around.

- In pgsql/src/backend/access/gin/ginxlog.c, fix bug in GIN WAL redo
  cleanup function: don't free fake relcache entry while it's still
  being used.  Backpatch to 8.4, where the fake relcache method was
  introduced.

- In pgsql/src/backend/access/transam/xlog.c, now that streaming
  replication switches between streaming mode and restoring from
  archive, the last WAL segment is not necessarily open at the end of
  recovery. Fix assertion that assumed that.  Fujii Masao, fixing the
  assertion failure reported by Martin Pihlak.

- In pgsql/src/backend/access/transam/xlog.c, check for partial WAL
  files in standby mode.  If restore_command restores a partial WAL
  file, assume it's because the file is just being copied to the
  archive and treat it the same as "file not found" in standby mode.
  pg_standby has a similar check, so it seems reasonable to have the
  same level of protection in the built-in standby mode.

- In pgsql/src/backend/access/transam/xlog.c, if primary_conninfo is
  not set, don't try to establish streaming connection.

- In pgsql/doc/src/sgml/high-availability.sgml, clean up Streaming
  Replication documentation a little bit.  A lot more needs to be
  done, but it's a step forward.

- In pgsql/src/backend/access/transam/xlog.c, reduce the chatter to
  the log when starting a standby server. Don't echo all the
  recovery.conf options. Don't emit the "initializing recovery
  connections" message, which doesn't mean anything to a user.  Remove
  the "starting archive recovery" message and replace the "automatic
  recovery in progress" message with a more informative message saying
  whether the server is doing PITR, normal archive recovery, or
  standby mode.

- In pgsql/doc/src/sgml/high-availability.sgml, update Hot Standby
  documentation to reflect the change in the LOG messages printed at
  startup.  As pointed out by Simon Riggs.

Joe Conway committed:

- Check to ensure the number of primary key fields supplied does not
  exceed the total number of non-dropped source table fields for
  dblink_build_sql_*(). Addresses bug report from Rushabh Lathia.
  Backpatch all the way to the 7.3 branch.

- Modify recently added PQconnectdbParams() with new argument,
  expand_dbname.  If expand_dbname is non-zero and dbname contains an
  = sign, it is taken as a conninfo string in exactly the same way as
  if it had been passed to PQconnectdb. This is equivalent to the way
  PQsetdbLogin() works, allowing PQconnectdbParams() to be a complete
  alternative.  Also improve the way the new function is called from
  psql and replace a previously missed call to PQsetdbLogin() in psql.
  Additionally use PQconnectdbParams() for pg_dump and friends, and
  the bin/scripts command line utilities such as vacuumdb, createdb,
  etc.  Finally, update the documentation for the new parameter, as
  well as the nuances of precedence in cases where key words are
  repeated or duplicated in the conninfo string.

Teodor Sigaev committed:

- Generic implementation of red-black binary tree. It's planned to use
  in several places, but for now only GIN uses it during index
  creation.  Using self-balanced tree greatly speeds up index creation
  in corner cases with preordered data.

Andrew Dunstan committed:

- Free reference in correct Perl context. Backpatch to release 8.2.
  Patch from Tim Bunce.

- Add plperl.on_plperl_init and plperl.on_plperlu_init settings for
  language-specific startup. Rename recently added plperl.on_perl_init
  to plperl.on_init. Also, code cleanup for utf8 hack.  Patch from Tim
  Bunce, reviewed by Alex Hunsaker.

- Add regression test files inadvertantly omitted in
  plperl.on_plperl{u}_init patch.

Gregory Stark committed:

- In pgsql/src/port/copydir.c, make CREATE DATABASE safe against
  losing whole files by fsyncing the directory and not just the
  individual files.  Back-patch to 8.1 -- before that we just called
  "cp -r" and never fsynced anything anyways.

- Speed up CREATE DATABASE by deferring the fsyncs until after copying
  all the data and using posix_fadvise to nudge the OS into flushing
  it earlier. This also hopefully makes CREATE DATABASE avoid spamming
  the cache.  Tests show a big speedup on Linux at least on some
  filesystems.  Idea and patch from Andres Freund.

- In pgsql/src/backend/commands/explain.c, display explain buffers
  measurements in memory units rather than blocks.  Also show "Total
  Buffer Usage" to hint that these are totals not averages per loop.

ITAGAKI Takahiro committed:

- Add psql tab completion for DO blocks.  Also adjust documentation of
  DO.  Patch from David Fetter and subsequent discussion.

- In pgsql/src/port/copydir.c, remove an unused variable 'dirfd'.

== Abgelehnte Patches (bis jetzt) ==

No one was disappointed this week :-)

== Eingesandte Patches ==

Leonardo Francalanci sent in another revision of the patch to speed up
CLUSTER.

Robert Haas sent in a patch to let psql use Zoltan Boszormenyi's patch
to provide a rowcount utility for SELECTs.

Simon Riggs sent in another revision of the patch to fix deadlock
detection in hot standby.

Jesper Krogh sent in a patch to enable per-table configuration of
TOAST_TUPLES_PER_PAGE.

ITAGAKI Takahiro sent in a patch to fix the behavior of the new VACUUM
FULL with temp relations.

Fujii Masao sent in a patch to write an XLOG UNLOGGED record if WAL
logging was skipped.

Joachim Wieland sent in four more revisions of the patch fixing
LISTEN/NOTIFY behavior when the queue is full.

Zoltan Boszormenyi sent in four more revisions of the patch to provide
a rowcount utility for SELECTs.

Leonardo Francalanci sent in two more revisions of the patch to fix
CLUSTER behavior.

KaiGai Kohei sent in four more revisions of a patch to help fix large
object access controls.

Marko (johto) Tiikkaja sent in six more revisions of the patch to add
write operations to CTEs.

Bruce Momjian sent in a patch to fix the repeated banner issue in
psql.

Bruce Momjian sent in a patch to control the behavior of FM in
formatting strings.

Fujii Masao and Thom Brown sent in doc patches for Streaming
Replication.

Marko (johto) Tiikkaja and Tom Lane sent patches (2 and 1
respectively) to fix writeable CTE behavior with empty relations.

ITAGAKI Takahiro sent in a patch to add the TRUNCATE+COPY optimization
and --jobs=1 to pg_restore.

Simon Riggs sent in a patch to implement pg_standby for use as an
archive_cleanup_command with a new -a option to do so.

Robert Haas sent in two revisions of a patch to support
K-Nearest-Neighbor GiST search.

Arie Bikker sent in three more revisions of a patch to improve xpath
support.

Andreas Freund sent in a patch to change FATAL to ERROR in cancelling
an "<IDLE> in transaction" connection.

Simon Riggs sent in a patch to optimize GetConflictingVirtualXIDs() in
roughly the same manner currently used in TransactionIdIsInProgress().

Andreas Freund sent in a patch to fix subtransaction cancellation in
Hot Standby.

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